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Means -Ends / Tool use

 Uses a tool that is contiguous with the goal as a means to obtain the goal (e.g., pulls string tied to object; pulls cloth under object)

 Uses a tool that is noncontiguous as a means to obtain the goal (e.g., rakes in object with stick; moves chair in position and climbs on chair to obtain object on shelf)

Causality / Communicative intent

Touches adult's hand or object to recreate spectacle

Uses gestural or vocal signal to regulate an adult's behavior or to direct adult's behavior or to direct  adult's attention

Discovers the source of an action (e.g., how to activate a mechanical toy; looks for the source of a thrown object)

Gestural /Vocal Imitation

Takes turns after adult imitates child's behavior or in familiar social routines 

 Initiates vocal or gestural behavior initiated by adult

Initiates a behavior at a much later time in the absence of the original model

Schemes for Relating to objects /  Symbolic Play

Explores the physical properties of objects

Uses recognitory gestures on realistic objects (e.g., combs own hair; brushes own teeth‑, eats from spoon)

Uses pretend schemes with miniature objects toward self (e.g., rolls toy cay; drinks from doll's cup; pounds toy hammer.)

Uses pretend schemes toward others (e.g., feeds doll with bottle; combs mother's hair)

Uses multiple pretend schemes in sequence (e.g., stirs pretend food in pan; pours food onto dish and feeds doll)

Social Relatedness /  Expression Of Emotion

Expresses emotion of joy, fear, and anger appropriate situations or in response to adult's emotional expression

Responds differentially  to strangers and care givers

Uses gestural or vocal signals to establish closeness (e.g., to make adult laugh and make adult angry)

Expresses emotion of empathy, shame affection and defiance

Language Comprehension

Uses nonlinguistic  response strategies, Including situational routines, contextual clues, intonation, gestures and facial expression.

Comprehends the meaning of single words (e.g., person name ,  subject names, actions)

Comprehends multiword  utterances based on semantic relations (e.g., action +  object; agent +  action; attribute +  object)

Language Production

consistent proverbial forms tied to the context

uses single word approximations or intoned jargon to encode dynamic, changing states or objects that can be acted upon by the child.

 Uses multi word utterances to encode semantic relations (e.g., action +  object; attribute +  object)

adapted from NOTTOLI


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